Glossary
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A.S. (A.s.)
Alongside
AA
Always afloat
AAAA
Always Afloat, Always Accessible
AALA
American Association for Laboratory Accrediation
AASO
Assosiation of American Ship Owners
AB
Able seamen
AB (ABS)
American Bureau of Shipping - American (US) Ship Classification Society. Under the provisions of the US Load-Line Act - it has the authority to assign load lines to vessels registered in the US and other countries.
Abandoned Well
An oil well where production has ceased.
ABS
American Bureau of Shipping- American classification society.
Accommodation Unit / Floatel
Normally a semisubmersible or jackup (See Jackup), equipped with cabins, catering facilities and office space for up to 800 persons. The installation is normally used for the accommodation and catering for personnel constructing or operating a fixed production platform. An accommodation unit may also be equipped with workshops and/or storage facilities.
ACFN
American Committee for Flags of Necessity
ACGFO
Any Commercial Grade of Fuel Oil
Acid Gas
Gas with pollutants causing a low pH-value. Creates corrosion problems.
Acidizing
Te injection of hydrochloric acid into the production zone in order to stimulate greater yield. The acid corrodes the sedimentary partitions, thereby increasing permeability .
ACOT
Advisory Committee on Offshore Technology
ACP
Area Contingency Plan
ACS
American Chemicals Society
ADDRESS COMMISSION
Commission payable to the charterer by the shipowner as a percentage of freight or hire. Historically it was paid to the charterer to cover some of the expenses incurred by him.  At present it virtually works out to a reduction in the freight.
AD
Air Draft - correctly used, air draft refers to the distance from the vessel's waterline to the top of the highest mast in an unladen condition. Important to determine whether the vessel can pass under fixed bridges. (Airdraft is also used to refer to the distance from the vessel's light waterline to the top of the hatch coming. This dimension must be known to determine whether the vessel will fit under the fixed shore loading or discharging appliance.)
ADB
African / Asian Development Bank
ADEC
Alaska Departement of Environmental Conservation
ADR
Alternative Dispute Resolution - a relatively new innovation whose use has increased in the last decade in response to a general rise in litigation in many jurisdictions and the thereby escalating cost associated therewith, as well as the increased dissatisfaction with the legal process itself. The ADR is a tool designed as a supplement to a given judicial system to provide parties of otherwise good and long term working relationship with a cheaper and in most cases less adversial alternative to lengthy court hearings and arbitrations.
Aerated Mud
Drilling mud mixed with oxygen to increase efficiency.
AFRA
Average Freight Rate Assessment - average costs for the freight of oil with tankships. Calculated by the Worldscale Association in London. based on an ongoing registration of all freightrates at particular points in time.
Aframax
American Freight Rate Association - approximately 80,000 - 105,000 dwt - term for a tank ship of standard size.
AFRASEC
Afro-Asian Organization for Economic Cooperation
AFTA
Asean Free Trade Area (See ASEAN).
AG
Arabian Gulf - also called PG - Persian Gulf.
Agent / Ship's Agent
Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
AGS
Annual General Survey
AH
Antwerp Hambug range
AHT
Anchorhandling Tug - vessel employed in the offshore field moving anchors and performing towing operations.
AHTS
AHT which is also a combined supplyvessel.
AID
Agency for International Development - US organization for civilian aid programmes.
AIMS
American Institute of Merchant Shipping - the American shipowners' association for the major part of the privately owned tonnage.
AIS
Automatic Identification System
ALADI
Latin-American Integration Association (11 members).
ALAMAP
Associacón Latinamericano de Armadores - Latin-American Shipowners' Association (established in March 1963).
ALU-TUCP
Philippine Seafarers' Union, member of TUCP (Trade Union Council of the Philippines).
AMA
Association of Maritime Arbitrators, New York
AMOSUP
Associated Marine Officers' and Seamen's Union of the Philippines - Filipino union for officers and crew.
AMPD
Average Most Probable Discharge
AMR
Average Most Probable Discharge
AMS
Automated Manifest System (For US Departement of Agriculture Entry Processing Procedures for US ports)
AMVER
Automatic Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System - American warning system for international shipping.
ANDES’ Pact
Customs and tariffs union between Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia with common external customs’ tariffs.
Anchor Piling
Mooring point on the sea bed.
Anchorhandling Tug
AHT - ship carrying out tasks such as the placing or moving of anchors, as well as towing drilling installations and barges etc. May double as a supply vessel and is in such cases termed Anchorhandling Tug/Supply (AHTS).
Annular Blowout Preventer
Safety valve during drilling operations. Consists of rubber gasket stopping the flow of mud outside the drill string.
Annulus
The distance between the drill string and the casing or the wall of the drilling hole.
ANPRM
Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
ANS
Alaskan North Slope (crude oil)
ANSI
American National Standard Institute
AODC
Association of Offshore Diving Contractors
AOSC
Assistant On-Scene Coordinator (U.S. Coast Guard)
AP
All Purposes or Additional Premium
APEC
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (18 members).
API
American Petroleum Institute - Founded in 1919, the first oil trade association to include all branches of the petroleum industry
API GRAVITY
Petroleum industry expression for density of petroleum liquid expressed in API units. - API gravity is obtained by means of simultaneous hydrometer/temperature readings, equated to, and generally expressed at 60ºF. The relative density to API gravity relation is: API gravity at 60ºF = 141.5 divided by relative density 60ºF minus 131.5.
APICOM
Association of Petroleum Industry Cooperative Managers
APS
Arrival Pilot Station - Signifies a location, on arrival at which vessel will deliver on to a time-charter. Of advantage to a ship owner when compared with TIP, which see.
APT
After Peak Tank
AR / ATRS
American Tanker Rate Schedule-Revised - A Standards of reference published by a group of American tanker brokers and expressed in dollars and cents for thousands of possible voyages. Commonly used for U.S. coast wise voyages.
ARA
Antwerpen-Rotterdam-Amsterdam, often used as destination specification.
Arbitration
A method of settling disputes by one or more arbitrators. Quicker and cheaper than taking a case to court.
ARPA
Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
ART
Alternative Response Technology
Articulated Platform/ Oscillating Platform
An offshore structure fastened to the sea bed by means of an articulated hinge, stabilized by buoyancy elements near the surface. Usually used in connection with loading buoys and flare towers.
ASBA
Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A., Inc.), New York
ASEAN
Association of South East Asian Nations - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore.
ASEM
Summit Meeting between Asian and European nations.
ASF
Asian Shipowners' Forum - shipowners' association for East Asia and Oceania.
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASO
Arbeidsgiverforeningen for Skip og Offshorefartoyer - The Employers' Organization for Ships and Offshore Installations (Oslo).
AST
Atlantic Strike Team (U.S. Coast Guard)
ASTF
Alaska Science and Technology Foundation
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
ATDN
Any Time Day or Night
ATDNS / ATDNSHINC
Any Time Day or Night Shinc
ATRS / AR
See AR above
ATS
All Time Saved
ATSB
All Time Saved Both ends
AUTOMATIC SAMPLER
A device installed in a flow, automatically controlled so as to extract a representative sample of the flow.
AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGE
An instrument capable of indicating the level of product from a location remote to the Manual gauge site
AWES
Association of Western European Shipbuilders
AWO
American Waterways Operators
B.S.& W.
Bottom Sediment and Water
B/D
Barrels per Day
B/L
Bills of Lading (Blading) - The basic document between a shipper and a carrier and a shipper and a consignee. It represents the contract of carriage and defines the terms and conditions of carriage. It is the final receipt from the carrier for the goods shown on it and for the condition of the goods. It describes the nature, quantity and weight of the cargo carried. It is also the document of title of the goods shown. Dirty B/L - Bill of Lading with Captain's note of protest as to the condition of the cargo.
B/N
Booking Note
BA
Buenos Aires
BAC
The Bioremediation Action Committee (EPA sub-committee)
Ballast
Sea water taken into a vessel's tanks in order to submerge the vessel to proper trim. Proper trim is necessary in order to safely navigate the vessel in light condition. Ballast can be taken into cargo tanks, double bottoms, fore and aft peak tanks and/or segregated ballast tanks (SBT)
BAP
Best Available Protection
Bareboat
The hiring or leasing of a vessel from one company to another (the charterer), which provides crew, bunkers, stores, etc. and pays all operating costs.
Bareboat Charter-Party (Demise C/P)
Contract for the hire of an empty ship. All operating costs are covered by the charterer.
Barrel
Measure for oil. There are 7.1 barrels of oil in one ton. Each barrel is approximately 159 litres. Many abbreviations: b, bbl, bar. Sometimes written with capital letters. Barrels per day (Bd or b/d) specifies the production rate per day.
BB
Bahia Blanca ; Ballast Bonus - A lump sum amount paid to a ship owner, usually as a reward (a bonus) for positioning the vessel at a certain place as a prerequisite for her delivery on to time-charter - e.g.: for a ship ex-Mediterranean Sea, "delivering United States Gulf for a time-charter trip to the Far East at US$ 5,000 daily, plus a ballast bonus of US$ 100,000". Occasionally paid as a reward for accepting redelivery from time-charter in an unfavorable position. A Ballast Bonus may be nett (i.e. free of address commissions and brokerages) or gross (i.e.: subject to deduction of brokerage and address commission). ; Below Bridges: - indicates agreement for a vessel to proceed to that section of a port or a river/canal that is "below bridges" - in other words below the place(s) where height restrictions would prevent a vessel navigating beneath certain overhead obstructions.
- e.g.: "Vessel to discharge at one safe berth River Thames, Below Bridges".
BBB
Before Breaking Bulk - freight to be paid, i.e. the money deposited into the shipping company's account, prior to discharging.
BCH Code
International code (IMO) for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk
BCM
Distance from Bow to Center of Cargo Manifolds
BD
Bar draft ; Bundle
BDI
Both Dates Inclusive
BEI
Banque Europenne d'Investissement - The European Investment Bank.
Bell Diving
Carrying out diving within a diving vessel, shaped like a bell.
Benchmarking
To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field.
BENDS
Both Ends
Benelux
Belgium, Netherland, Luxembourg
BFI
Baltic Freight Index - an index for bulk freight rates.
BGCP
Berth Grain Charter Party
BH
Bordeaux Hamburg Range
BHP
Brake Horse Power
BIAC
Business and Industry Advisory Committee - OECD's advisory committee. Opposite to TUAC.
BICC
Bureau International des Chambres de Commerce - International information bureau for Chambers of Commerce.
BIFA
British International Freight Association
BIFFEX
Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (London) - an exchange for the buying and selling of futures, based on the BFI.
BIFFEX
Baltic International Freight Futures Market
BILGE
The lower internal part of the hull where the vertical sides meet the bottom. This term also applies to both the inside and the outside of the hull. The internal space can be the lower part of a ship's hold or the engine room and serves as a drainage area where accumulated water can run into and be pumped from.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
Negotiable document issued by shipowner to shipper of goods. Contains terms and conditions of the contract.
BIMCO
The Baltic and International Maritime Council (Copenhagen)
BIS
Bank for International Settlements (Basel)
BISCO
British Iron and Steel Corporation
Bit
Drill bit.
BITT
Cast steel heads serving as posts to which mooring lines and cables are secured on ships
BLF
Bow Loading Facilities
Block
Denotes an area awarded for test drilling or production. Block sizes may vary.
Blowout
Uncontrolled blow out of oil or gas due to excessive pressure in the reservoir.
Blowout Preventer
Also called "Christmas Tree", a safety valve placed on the well head.
BLT
Built
BMIN
Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation
BMLA
British Maritime Law Association
BNA
British North America
BO
Best Offer
BOA
Basic Ordering Agreement
BOP
Abbreviation for Blowout Preventer.
BOSVA
British Offshore Supply Ships Association
BOTB
British Overseas Trade Board (London)
BOW
The forward most part of a vessel. This area usually houses gear lockers and is the end where anchors and mooring equipment are located.
Box
Everyday term for container.
Break-Bulk Cargo
Goods shipped loose in the vessel's hold and not in container.
BRM
Bridge Resource Management
BROA
British Rigowners' Association
BS (B/S)
Bunker surcharge
BSC
British Shippers Council
BSI
British Standards Institution
BT
Berth Terms
BTCS
Butterworth Tank Cleaning System
A mechanical device used for the purpose of cleaning oil tanks by means of high pressure jets of hot water. The apparatus basically consists of double opposed nozzles which rotate slowly bout their horizontal and vertical axis and project two streams of water through all possible angles against all inside surfaces of the space being cleaned. The tank washing machines can deliver sprays of water at various temperatures and pressures which are dictated by the type of cargoes carried and the reasons for cleaning (Quick bottom wash through gas-freeing and tank entry for hot work).
Bulk ship (bulk carrier)
Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways.
Bulkcargo
Homogeneous dry cargo (not packaged), e.g. coal, grain, iron ore, etc.
Bulk-oil carrier
Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil).
Bumber Sub
A tool, appr. 20 metres long, allowing a certain amount of vertical movement.
Bunkers
Ship's fuel. To take on fuel, is called bunkering.
Bury Barge
Vessel especially equipped to bury oil and gas pipelines on the sea bed.
BV
Bureau Veritas - French classification society.
C & E
Customs and Excise - British Department for Tariffs and Customs.
C & F
Cost and Freight - Goods are to be sold on the basis that the seller arranges their seaborne transportation and delivery to the buyer.
C.I.S.
Confederation of Independent States (former Soviet Union - see also FSU)
C / O / H
Cuba / Orinoco / Haiti
CA
Central America
CAACE
Comit des Associations d'Armateurs de la Communaut Europenne (Brussels) - organization for shipping companies from the EU.
CABA
Containing Air Breathing Apparatus
CABAF
Currency And Bunker Adjustment Factor
Cabotage
Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country.
CACM
Central American Common Market
CAD
Cash Against Documents
CAF
Currency Adjustment Factor
CAJEA
Council of All Japanese Exporters' Association
Camber
The arching of the deck upward measured at the centerline in inches per foot beam.
CAP
Condition Assessment Programme - inspection of a vessel to determine its technical condition.
Capesize
Vessel which is too large to navigate the Suez Canal to and from the Arabian Gulf, therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape of Good Hope - approximately 80,000 - 175,000 dwt.
Caping
Routing a vessel around the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Capital intensive tonnage
Vessel demanding relatively large capital investments, e.g. cruiseships, gas- and chemical tankers, etc.
CARIBS
Caribbean Sea
CARICOM
Caribbean Community.
CAS
Collision Avoidance System - Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in USA inland navigable waterways.
Casing
Pipe with thick walls placed in the drill hole and cemented in place. Prevents the hole from caving in.
CASO
Council of American- flag Ship Operators (eight liner companies which left the AIMS).
Catwalk
A raised bridge running fore and aft from the Midship House, also called "walkway". It affords safe passage over the pipe lines and other deck obstructions.
Cave-in
The walls of the drill hole disintegrating and filling up the hole.
CBA
Collective Bargaining Agreement (tariff agreement) - CBA for Filipino seamen between AMOSUP and ASO is an example. The term is used for any kind of tariff agreement, both for NIS-ships and foreign flagged ships.
CBFS
Carbon Black Feed Stock
CBM
Conventional Buoy Mooring
CBR
Commodity Box Rate
CBT
Clean Ballast Tanks
CCA
Chemical Carriers Association
CCAF
Comité des Armateurs de France - the French shipowners' association.
CCC
Customs Co-operation Council - forum for international cooperation between customs authorities, attempting to create harmony and uniformity of approach.
CCGD8
Commander Coast Guard District Eight
CCR
Cargo Control Room
CCS
China Classification Society
CCW
Clean Coastal Waters (Long Beach CA cooperative)
CD
Customary Dispatch; Chart Datum - a water level calculated on the lowest tide that can conceivably occur, and used as a basis for chart measurements. Such low tide is known also as the Lowest Astronomic Tide (LAT), and presupposes that at the very worst, there would always be that depth of available water at that particular spot.
CDS
Chemical Data Sheet
CE
Conseil de l'Europe (Strasbourg)
CEC
Certificate of Equivalent Competency
CEFOR
Maritime insurers central association.
Cellar Deck
The level beneath Rotary Table on a rig. On a jack-up this means the well-head and BOP. On a floating rig, it is the deck from which the guidelines are controlled. May also have a Marine Riser.
CEMT
Conference Europeenne des Ministres des Transports - OECD-affiliated organization for dealing with transportation problems on rails, roads and inland waterways.
CEN
European Standardization Organization
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation
CENSA
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners' Associations (London).
CENSA
Council of European and Japanese (Nipponese) National Shipowners' Association
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (U.S.)
CES
Customs Exam Station(U.S. Customs designation for office granting import licence on USDA approved cargoes)
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations (U.S.)
CFS
Container Freight Station ; Cubic Feet per Second
CFT (CuFt)
Cubic Feet
CGT
Colliery Guarantee Terms - the ship is to be loaded in accordance with the terms of the colliery (coal mine) guarantee, which is a contract between the colliery and the charterers - occasionally between the colliery and the ship owner - describing applicable laytime, excepted periods, holiday and demurrage
Charterer
Cargo owner or another person/company who hires a ship.
Chartering
To hire a ship to carry goods/cargo.
Chartering agent
Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship.
Charter-Party (C/P)
Contract for the hire of a ship or space in a ship ; Transport contract between shipowner and shipper of goods.
Chemical tanker
Special tanker built for the transportation of bulk chemicals. Newer tonnage is equipped with stainless steel tanks. Ships may carry many different cargoes simultaneously, because each tank has its own pump and pipeline system for loading and unloading.
CHOPT
Charterer's Option - May refer, for example, to Charterer's option to discharge at a number of ports - e.g.: "up to three ports Taiwan, in Charterer's Option". Or perhaps relative to a cargo size margin - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less chopt". (See MOLCO).
CIC
Clean Island Council (Hawaiian cooperative)
CIF
Cost, Insurance, Freight. Designates that the cargo is carried free of charge for the buyer; seller pays all transportation costs.
CIFC
Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission
CIFFO
Cost, Insurance and Freight, Free Out
CIMA
Channel Industries Mutual Aid Association
CIP
Calling-In-Point
CIRCAC
Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council
CIS
Commonwealth of Independant States
CISPRI
Cook Inlet Spill Prevention, Inc. (Alaskan cooperative)
Civil Liability Convention
CLC - see Oil spill compensation.
CKD
Completely Knocked Down - Said of cargo, normally of cars, shipped in pieces and cased, to be assembled at destination.
Classification society
Organization which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, sets and maintains quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state's maritime authorities.
CLC
Civil Liability Convention of 1969.
CLINGAGE
The residue that adheres to the inner surface and structure of a container, such as a tank after having been emptied
CLS
Closed Loading System
CMI
Comite Maritime International - the international association for maritime law.
COA
Contract of Affreightment - quantity contract: An agreement between shipowner and shipper concerning the freight of a defined amount of cargo. The shipowner chooses ship.
Coating
Paint (corrosion protection)
COE
Corps Of Engineers
COFFERDAM
The narrow, empty space between two adjacent watertight or oil-tight compartments. This space is designed to isolate the two compartments from each other and/or provide additional buoyancy. It prevents any liquid contents of one compartment from entering the other in the event of a bulkhead failure. In oil tankers, cargo spaces are usually isolated from the rest of the ship by cofferdams fitted at both ends of the tank body.
COFR
Certificate of Financial Responsibility - regarding the transport of oil to USA. Vessels must have a certificate guaranteeing the payment of up to USD 1,500 per dwt. in case of oil spills.
COFR
Certificate Of Financial Responsibility
COGSA
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (USA).
Collar
A thick piece of pipe closest to the bit.
Combination carrier
Ships for the transportation of both liquid and dry bulkcargoes. There are two main types: Ore carriers and bulk-tank-ships.
Commission
Shipbroker's remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price.
Commission
Shipbroker's fee - often 1,25% of the gross freight rate. In the case of a purchase/sale, often 1% of the purchase sum.
Completion
Making the hole ready for production.
Conductor Pipe
Casing with large diametre - normally the first first lining or guide pipe fitted during the drilling operation.
Container vessel
Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with special cranes and are then called lift on-lift off-ships (see special entry). Container ships are generally fast, operating regular sailing schedules (lines).
Contract of Affreightment, c.o.a.
Contract for the hire of a ship. The shipowner undertakes the transport of certain amounts of goods for one or several voyages.
COP
Custom Of The Port - cargo to be loaded or discharged as per custom of the port. Thus no specific rate of cargo handling would be entered in the contract, the owner relying on the vagaries of local practices and customs. Presumably he will ask for a higher freight rate to protect him against possible delays.
COR
Certificate Of Registry
COTCTFC
Charterer's Option To Complete To Full Cargo
COTP
Captain Of The Port (U.S. Coast Guard)
COTTON CLUB
informal forum for Western European and Japanese shipping attachées in Washington. COTTON CLUB - informal forum for Western European and Japanese shipping attachées in Washington.
COW
Crude Oil Washing - a method of cleaning tanks using oil from the vessel's cargo. COW is normally used when a tanker is discharging. Oil is taken from the tanks and pumped through a special line to fixed or semi-fixed tank washing machines where it is sprayed against all inside surfaces of the tank. This procedure removes any cargo which is "clinging" to the surfaces of the tank
CPP
Clean Petroleum Products
CQD
Customary Quick Dispatch - the vessel is to be loaded or discharged as quickly as is customary and possible - se CD
CR
China Corporation Register (Taiwan) - Taiwanese Skip Classification Agency
Crane and Construction Vessel / Unit
Normally a ship, a barge or a semisubmersible, equipped for the construction and maintenance of fixed installations. May sometimes offer accommodation. Other services offered are: Storage facilities, the supply of water, compressed air and electricity, office space, communications center, helicopter landing pad, etc.
CRC
Clean River Cooperative (Portland OR - Columbia River)
CRD
Current Rate Discharge (see Current Rate)
CRISTAL
Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution - a voluntary system established by oil companies in order to "plug" holes in IMO-conventions concerning the financial settlement of claims in connection with oil spills. The oil companies' supplemet to TOVALOP.
CRISTAL
Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution
CRL
Current Rate Load (see Current Rate)
Cross Trade
The freight of cargoes between foreign ports. Nearly 95 per cent of the Norwegian-owned tonnage is cross-trading.
CRS
Croatian Register of Shipping (Hravatski Registar Brodova) - Croatian Ship Classification Society
Crude (oil)
Unrefined oil directly from the well.
Cruise ship
Passenger vessel carrying passengers on trips between various ports, normally with the same starting and ending port. Standards of accommodation and recreation normally high.
CSC
Container Safety Convention - convention for the promotion of safer containers.
CSD
Closed Shelter Deck Ship
CSG
Consultative Shipping Group - forum for the discussion of shipping policy on Government level. Fourteen West-European participants and Japan.
CSM
Closed System Measurement
CST
Centistrokes - Measure of the viscosity of oils such as fuel oils. The greater the number of centistrokes, the higher the viscosity of a grade of oil
CSWR
Chamber of Shipping War Risks, CP clauses.
CTAC
Chemical Transportation Advisory Committee
CTL
Constructive Total Loss - loss or damage to goods or to a ship which is such that the cost of repair or recovery would exceed their value when repaired or recovered.
Cubic Capacity
The most important commercial measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (free board). Capacity is measured in cubic meters or cubic feet (cu.ft.).
Current Rate
A Term whereby the ship owner contracts to pay the current rate costs of loading and/or discharge.
CVS
Consecutive Voyages - a series of consecutive voyages, usually laden from Port A to Port B, returning in ballast condition, and so on until completion of final cargo discharge.
CWD
Colliery Working Days - a laytime term describing normal working days of a colliery (coal mine), including those in a strike or other actions.
CY
Container Yard
DBB
Deals, Battens and Boards. Unit of measure of timber.
DBT
Double Bottom Tanks
Dead Freight
Money payable by shipper or charterer to shipowner or shipping line for failing to load the amount of cargo stipulated in contract.
Deadweight
The largest weight of cargo, bunkers and stores a ship is able to carry. Expressed in metric tons (1,000 kg) or long tons (1,016 kg). The deadweight tonnage is the most important commercial measurement. Normally the maximum payload for a ship is three to ten per cent lower than the deadweight, due to the weight of bunkers and stores, etc.
Decompression
Slow, controlled reduction of pressure inside a pressure chamber to prevent divers from suffering the "bends" after a too fast ascent.
Degassing
The removal of oil and gas from the drilling mud which may then be used again.
Dehydration Plant/ Water Separation Plant
Various types of equipment for the "drying" of gas or oil.
DEL
Delivery
DELREDEL
Delivery and Redelivery
DEM
Demurrage - A fixed sum, per day or per hour, agreed to be paid for the detention of the vessel under charter at the expiration of the allowed laytime.
Demurrage
Money paid to shipowner by charterer, shipper or receiver, for failing to complete loading/discharging within time allowed according to charter-party.
Derrick Man
Platform worker handling the drill stem in the tower.
DES
Disaster Emergency Services
Deviated Well
A hole which intentionally is not drilled straight down.
DF
Dead Freight ; Direction finder
DFD
Demurrage/Free Dispatch - An expression confirming that a ship owner may be entitled to demurrage for port delay to his vessel, but that no dispatch is applicable in case laytime is saved - e.g.: "$ 2,000 Demurrage/Free Dispatch". Common in short-sea and other trades where turn-a-round in port is speedy; for example, ro-ro vessels.
DG
Directorate General - the term used for the various departments of the EU-Commission.
DHD / D½D
Demurrage/Half Dispatch - This term, often found in voyage charter negotiations, signifies that dispatch money is to be paid at half the daily demurrage rate.
DHPT
Department of Highways and Public Transportation
Diamond Bit
The tip of the drill stem reinforced with diamond to prolong its lifetime.
DIP
Depth of liquid = to American expression: gauge
Dip Meter
An instrument to measure deviations in the vertical component in the terrestrial magnetic field. Used to determine the position of the sediment and its structure, and to measure the deviation of the drilling hole.
Directional Drilling
see Deviated Well.
DIS
Dansk Internationalt Skibsregister - Danish International Shipregister.
DISP
Dispatch - An agreed amount per day or per hour agreed to be paid to terminals or charterer of a vessel for prompt turnaround of a vessel. Usually half the amount of the agreed demurrage rate. (Demurrage - Half Dispatch).
Dispatch
Remuneration payable by shipowner to charterer, shipper or receiver for loading/discharging in less than the time allowed according to charter-party.
Disposal Well
Drilling hole which is prepared for the re-injection of produced saline into the reservoirs.
Diving Bell
Bell shaped construction for deep sea diving.
Diving Support Vessel
Ship with diving equipment on board, carrying out various types of diving operations. May also be equipped with remotely operated or controlled sub-sea robots (Remote Operated Vehicle - ROV).
DK
Deutsche Schiffs-Revision und Klassifikationsub-sea robots (Remote Operated Vehicle - ROV).
DNME
Dynamic Non-Member Economies (referring to dynamic countries which are not members of the OECD)
DNMF
Det norske maskinistforbund - the Norwegian association for Ships' engineers.
DNV
Det Norske Veritas (NV) - Norwegian classification society.
DNVPS
Det Norske Veritas Petroleum Services
DO
Diesel Oil
DOA
U.S. Department Of Agriculture
DOC
Document of Compliance
DOD
U.S. Department Of Defense
DOE
U.S. Department Of Energy
DOH
U.S. Department Of Health
DOI
U.S. Department Of the Interior
Donald Duck-effect
Voice distortion due to the inhalation of the oxygen-helium mixture used in deep sea diving.
DOP
Dropping Outward Pilot - frequently used provision in a time charter to determine the time and place of redelivery of a ship to the owner by the charterer. The hire ceases at the moment the pilot disembarks.
DOT
U. S. Department Of Transportation
DOTC
Department Of Transportation Classification
DoTI
Department of Trade and Industry, UK
DP
Dynamic Positioning
DPO
Dynamic Positioning Officer
DPP
Dirty Petroleum Products
DPS
Dynamic Positioning System
DR
Danmarks Rederiforening - the Danish Shipowners' Association.
DRAFT
The depth of a ship in the water. This distance is measured from the bottom of the ship to the surface of the water. Draft marks are painted or welded on the surface of the vessels vertical plating. They are placed forward, aft and amidships on both sides of the vessel. At the amidships draft the official Load Line marker (Plimsoll mark) is also found. This Plimsoll mark designates the vessels maximum drafts allowed under various conditions.
Drag Bit
One-bladed drillbit for drilling in soft sediments.
Drift
Horizontal error during drilling operations.
Drill Pipe
Pipes with thin walls used during drilling. Each section is normally approximately 10 metres long.
Drill Stem
The string driving the bit into the sediments.
Drill Stem Test
Standard procedure to test oil or gas discoveries during drilling.
Drill String
see Drill Stem.
Driller
The person in charge during drilling operations.
Drilling Barge
Barge equipped for drilling operations in smooth seas. Normally not equipped with own propulsion machinery. Max. drilling depth approximately 150 meters.
Drilling Fluid, Drilling Mud
A special mixture used during drilling operations to lubricate the bit and balance the pressure in the drilling hole.
Drilling Rig
Drilling tower with turntable and mud pumping system. May be installed on an offshore rig or placed on a fixed or floating offshore installation like a drillship.
Drilling Supervisor
The engineer in charge.
Drilling Tender
Service vessel with personnel and equipment to the drilling rig ; Ship serving drilling installations which are depending on a ship or a barge for storage, accommodation, etc.
Drillship
Ship equipped with drilling rig and its own propulsion machinery. Kept in position by Dynamic Positioning Equipment. Operating in waters with a max. depth of 2,000 metres.
Dry cargo
Grain, coal, ore, general cargo, etc.
DSO
De samarbeidende organisasjoner - cooperation between DNMF and NS for mobile offshore installations (Norway).
DSRK
Deutsche Schiffs Revision und Klassifikation - German classification society.
DSV
Diving Support Vessel
DT
Deep Tank - Tank situated between the holds of a ship, primarily used for water ballast but capable of carrying water or fuel.
DW/DWT
Dead Weight/Dead Weight Tons
DWAT
Dead Weight All Told:
The total deadweight of a vessel at any time, or estimated against a particular draft. Includes cargo, bunkers, constant weight, etc.
DWCC
Dead Weight Cargo Capacity ; Dead Weight Carrying Capacity: Weight of cargo which a ship is able to carry when immersed to the appropriate load line, expressed in tonnes or tons.
Dynamic positioning
Keeping the ship's position with the help of automatically controlled propellers.
E&P FORUM
The Oil Industry International Exploration and Production Forum (London). Statoil, Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum are full Norwegian members, while OLF is associated member.
EBRD
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
ECE
Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (UN)
ECJ
European Court of Justice (EU)
ECLA
Economic Commission for Latin America, UN-body under ECOSOC.
ECMT
European Conference of Ministers of Transport
ECOSOC
Economical and Social Council of the United Nations, New York - UN's main body for economic questions. The regional commissions - ECLA, ESCAP, ECA, etc. - answer to ECOSOC.
ECSA
East Coast South America ; European Community Shipowners' Association (Brussels)
ECSC
European Coal and Steel Community
ECU
European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EU accounting.
EEA
European Economic Area
EFTA
European Free Trade Association of Non-common Market Countries.
EIB
European Investment Bank
ELA
Euzko Langilleen Alkartsuna - Spanish-Basque trade union.
EMA
European Monetary Agreement
EMAS
Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
EMIF
European Maritime Industries Forum
EMU
Economic Monetary Union
ESA
EFTA Surveillance Authority.
ESC
European Shippers' Council (Hague)
ESCAPE
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific - under ECOSOC.
EUROS
Planned ship register in the EU.
EXIMBANK
Export-Import Bank of the United States to promote American exports.
Exploration Well
Hole drilled during the search for new oil reserves.
FACS
Federation of American Controlled Shipping - organization for US companies with ships under FOC, mainly the Liberian.
FAO
UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome)
FASA
Federation of Asian Shipowners' Associations
Feeder Vessel
A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
FENSO
Federation of Norwegian Ships Officers organizations (NMB in Norwegian)
FEU
Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (same as two TEU).
FIATA
Federation Internationale des Associations de Transifaires et Assimiles (Zurich) - International association of forwarding agents.
FIO
Free in and Out - charterer pays for loading/discharging.
Fish - object
A fragment of a drill bit, broken drill pipe, or other object lodged at the bottom of the drilling hole, preventing continued drilling.
Fishing
The work of removing a Fish.
Fixture
Successful conclusion of negotiations between shipowner and charterer, normally with the aid of a shipbroker.
Flag discrimination
National legislation reserving cargo for own ships.
Flag of convenience (FOC)
Term used by labor organizations about countries allowing unlimited registration of foreign-owned ships in order to achieve low wage levels and low or no taxation payable to the flag state. Some FOC- flag states had previously very lax control routines, or no control at all, concerning the vessels' technical standard and their seaworthiness.
Flaring
The burning of non-commercial oil and gas on the production platform or vessel.
Flexible Joint - or Ball-joint
The bottom part of the Marine Riser construction, utilized during drilling from floating rig or vessel. Allows a certain angle deviation when the vessel or rig is positioned.
Flo-flo-ship
Special ship which may be submerged to allow cargo to be floated on or off, i.e. jack-up platforms which may be carried "piggy-back"-fashion on a flo-flo-ship.
Flush Phase
The initial production phase.
FMC
Federal Maritime Commission - American independant control authority regulating liner services to the USA.
FOB
Free on Board - seller is responsible for delivering cargo to the port, paying also for the loading.
FOC
Flag of Convenience
FONASABA
Federation of National Associations of Shipbrokers and Agents
Force Majeure
A clause limiting responsibility for charterer, shipper or receiver of cargo.
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Unit
FR
Finlands Rederifrening - the Finnish Shipowners' Association.
FRB
Fast Rescue Boat
Free pratique
Ship inspected and cleared by the health authorities of a country.
FSO
Floating storage and offloading unit
FSU
Floating storage unit
Fund Convention
See Oil spill compensation.
Gas Lift
The technique of mixing gas into the oil flow in order to enhance the flow.
Gas Oil Ratio
The ratio between the produced gas in cubic feet, and the oil measured in barrels.
Gas Re-Injection
Secondary Recovery Technique with the re-injection of "dried" and condensate-free gas to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Gas tanker
Special ship for the transportation of condensed (liquid) gases. The most important cargoes are: -LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane). -LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (propane, butane). -Ammonia. -Ethylene. On board, gases are kept liquid with highly effective insulation (thermos bottle-principle), by high pressure or by low temperature. LNG-ships must be able to carry cargoes with temperatures as low as -163°C.
Gas Well
The discovery of hydrocarbons with a high Gas Oil Ratio.
GATS
General Agreement on Trade in Services - part of GATT - concerns trading in services, incl. shipping.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva).
GBS
Gravity Base Structure
GCBS
General Council of British Shipping - the amalgamation of the former BSF - British Shipping Federation - and the UK Chamber of Shipping, established 1976.
General cargo
Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk.
Geological Survey
Detailed investigation for structure and type of sediment.
GEOROT
Geographical Rotation - sequence in which ship calls at ports on her itinerary.
GIS
German International Shipregister
GL
Germanischer Lloyd - German classification society.
GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
Gooseneck
Curved section of pipeline where the drill mud reaches the flexible hosepipe for further transportation to the swivel.
Grain Cap
Grain Capacity - a ship's grain-carrying capacity.
Gravity Structure
Platform firmly placed on the seabed without any special fastenings due to its high specific gravity. Several gravity structures have been installed in deep parts of the North Sea.
Gross Tonnage GT
(0.2+0.02·log10V)·V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board.
Handymax
Dry bulk vessel of approximately 35,000 - 50,000 dwt.
Handysize
Dry bulk vessel or product tanker, 15,000 - 50,000 dwt.
HBL
Hydrostatically Balanced Loading - balancing oil and water pressure preventing oil leaks in case of grounding. HBL reduces the cargo carrying capacity bu appr. 7 per cent.
Heavy Grain
Grain filling the ship to full deadweight capacity.
Hire-purchase Charter-Party
C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P.
HR
Hellenic Register of Shipping - Greek classification society.
HSC
High Speed Craft
HSLC
High Speed Light Craft
HSS
Highspeed Sea Service - fast ferry concept with double- or multihulled vessels with carrying capacity of up to 1500 passengers and around 400 cars.
IACS
International Association of Classification Societies
IADC
International Association of Drilling Contractors (Houston/Amsterdam)
IAPH
International Association of Ports and Harbours.
IBIA
International Bunker Industry Association (Kingston on Thames).
IBRD
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Washington) - the World Bank.
ICC
International Chamber of Commerce
ICFTU
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICHCA
International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (London)
ICOTAS
International Committee on the Organization of Traffic at Sea (London)
ICPL
International Committee on Passenger Lines (for the CENSA-countries).
ICS
International Chamber of Shipping (London)
IFC
International Finance Corporation
IFSMA
International Federation of ShipMasters Association (London)
ILA
International Law Association
ILO
UN's International Labour Organization (Geneva)
IMB
International Maritime Bureau - bureau established by the ICC to combat fraud in the shipping industry.
IMDG
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code - rules for the labelling of dangerous goods at sea.
IMEC
International Maritime Employers' Committee
IMIF
International Maritime Industry Forum - a forum for banks and shipbuilders with the purpose of solving problems in connection with surplus tanker tonnage.
IMO
International Maritime Organization (London) - UN's maritime authority.
IMPA
International Pilots' Association
IMU
International Maritime Union (Latin-American seamen's union with US affiliations.)
Injection Well
Hole drilled to inject water or gas into the reservoir in order to maintain pressure. Also called Service Well.
INMARSAT
International Maritime Satellite Organization (London)
Inside Preventer
A type of BOP which is installed on the drill stem.
INSROP
International Northern Sea Route Programme - comprehensive, multi-national, multi-disciplinary five-year research programme investigating commercial navigation through the North-East Passage.
Instrument Pig
An apparatus with various measuring instruments placed inside the pipeline. Transported along with the oilflow
INTERCARGO
International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (London) - Opposite number to INTERTANKO.
Intermodal transport
ICarriage of goods employing various modes of transport, i.e. sea/land, rail/sea, etc., between sender and receiver. Also called Multimodal Transport.
INTERTANKO
International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Oslo)
IOE
International Organization of Employers
IOPC
International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
IOPP
International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
ISF
International Shipping Federation (London) - cooperation of maritime employers' associations.
ISM
International Safety Management Code
ISMA
International Ship Managers' Association
ISO
International Standards Organization (London)
ISOA
International Support Vessels Owners' Association (London)
ITF
International Transport Workers' Federation (London)
Itinerary
List of a ship's ports of call.
ITOPF
International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. (London) - manages TOVALOP and cooperates closely with CRISTAL.
ITS
International Tanker Service - planned cooperation in the market between independent tanker owners.
IWA
International Wheat Agreement
Jacket
The lower part of the production system from the seabed to the lower deck module.
Jackup
Movable installation consisting of a large deck with legs which may be jacked up. During operation, the legs are resting on the seabed, and the vessel "jacked up", leaving the deck in secure position high above the surface of the sea. When moved, the legs are retracted and the installation floates. Usually not equipped with own propulsion machinery. (Max. water depths 110 to 120 metres.) Normally used as a drilling rig.
JARC
Jones Act Reform Coalition
JDPO
Junior Dynamic Positioning Officer
JETTISON
The act of throwing goods or pumping cargo overboard to lighten a ship to improve stability in an emergency.
Joint service
Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service.
JR
Jugoslav Register - Yugoslav classification society.
Kelly
The upper square or hexagonal part of the drill stem.
KFK
Koordinerende forskningskomité (Norway) - Coordinating Research Committee.
KGS
Kilogram(s)
Kick
A sudden increase in the drill mud pressure from below. A kick may in extreme cases develop into a Blow-out.
Kill
The increase of the counterpressure in the well, e.g. achieved by using mud with higher specific gravity.
Knot
Measure of speed for ships, i.e. one nautical mile (1,852 metres) per hour.
Kommandittselskap (K/S)
Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing very popular in Norway before the tax reform in 1991. Now almost obsolete.
KPI
Kesatuan Pelant Indonesia - Indonesian seamen's union.
KR
Korean Register of Shipping - Korean Ship Classification Society
KT
Knot - measure of speed of a ship, equal to one nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour
KTM
Keel to Top of Mast - distance from the keel of the Vessel to the top of the mast, also referred to as Airdraft, which indicates the clearance needed for the Vessel to pass under air structures above the waterways.
KWT
The main machinery's break-kW + the vessel's gross tonnage (GT) according to the vessel's papers. Used by the NSA when calculating wage levels.
L/C
Letter of Credit ; Laydays/Canceling: See LAYCAN
L3C
Last Three Cargoes
LA
Los Angeles
LAFTA
Latin America Free Trade Association
Lanemetre
Used particularly in connection with the transportation of trailers. One lanemetre is one metre of deck, with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 metres.The capacity of ships built for the transportation of new automobiles is normally expressed by the number of cars carried, or by the area of deckspace, in square metres.
LASH
Lighter Aboard Ship, i.e. ships which can carry lighters "piggy-back" fashion.
LAT
Latitude ; Lowest Astronomic Tide: see Chart Datum
Lay Barge or Pipe Laying Barge
Vessel laying pipelines on the seabed.
LAYCAN
Laydays/Canceling - a spread of dates - e.g.: "Laydays 1st September/Canceling 15th September," between which dates a vessel is to present for loading. Too early and she will probably have to wait. Too late and she risks being canceled by the charterers.
Lay-up
Ships are laid-up when rates are too low for profitable trading. Laid-up vessels are moored or anchored with a minimum watch crew on board.
LB
Long Beach ; Lower Buchanan
LBP
Length Between Perpendiculars - the length of the vessel measured between the forward part of the stern to the after part of the rudder post.
LCL
Less than Container Load
LD
Load
LDD
Leaded
LDT
Light Displacement Tonnage
Leasing
When a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping company (lessee) and the vessel's legal owner - the leasing company (lessor). The agreed fee will normally give the lessor a return on the investment with a profit during the leasing period. When the agreed period expires, the lessee may extend the leasing, but at a reduced fee (e.g. 1/12 of previous fee), or purchase the vessel at its estimated value.
LGM
Lawful General Merchandise
LIFO
Liner In Free Out
Liner
Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule.
Liner conference
Two or more shipping companies operating a service in common between designated areas. Conference partners agree special freight rates and terms for the trade, in order to stabilize market and service.
Liner Pipe
Casing which does not reach quite up to the well-head.
Liner service
Cargoships operating regular schedules between advertised ports.
LIST
The leaning of the vessel to the port or starboard.
LLA
Long Length Additional
LLMC
International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
LMMA
London Maritime Arbitrators Association, London
LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA
Length Over All:
The extreme length of the vessel measured from the foremost part to the aftermost part of the hull.
LOC (L/C)
Letter of Credit ; Letter Of Compliance
LOF-90
Lloyd's Open Form - standardized salvage contract.
LOF-95
Lloyd's Open Form - standardized salvage contract. Current version is called LOF-95. Effective January 1 1995. Revised and updated version of the LOF-90, and reflects changes resulting from the UK Merchant Shipping (Salvage and Pollution) Act 1994. Other changes have also been incorporated in this new LOF-95.
LOFR
Letter Of Financial Responsibility
LOG
An apparatus for measuring the speed of a vessel through the water. ; An entry made in a log book to record any event or occurrence during the logging period.
LOI
Letter of Indemnity - a guarantee issued by the receiver named in the Bill of Lading, Holding the carrier harmless if he is ordered to release the cargo without presentation of original Bill of Lading.
LOLO
Lift On/Lift Off - a term describing the method of loading and discharging cargo by ship or shore gear.
Lo-lo-ship
Lift on-lift off-ship. Containers or other goods are lifted on board and ashore by cranes.
LONG
Longitude
LORI
Letter Of Response Intention
LOT
Load On Top - the concept of allowing hydrocarbon material recovered during tank washing to be commingled with the next cargo.
LOU
Letter of Undertaking - a guarantee issued by a P & I Club or insurer, in cases where a vessel is involved in an accidents or damage to cargo. The LOU guarantees settlement of any proven claims, thus allowing the vessel to sail without unnecessary delays.
LPG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LPOC
Last Port Of Call
LR
Lloyd's Register of Shipping - British classification society.
LS
Lump Sum
LS & D
Landing, Storage and Delivery
LSC
Liberian Shipping Council
LSWR
Low Sulphur Waxy Residue
LT (L/T)
Long Ton - ton of 2,240 pounds, equivalent to 1,016 metric tons (M/T) ; Liner Terms - the responsibility and cost of loading, carrying and discharging cargo is that of the carrier, from the moment the goods are placed alongside the carrying vessel in readiness for loading, until discharged alongside at their destination. Time spent cargo-handling is also at the carrier's risk.
LTS
LayTime Saved - dispatch to be paid for laytime saved.
LW
Low Water
LWONT
Low Water Ordinary Neap Tides
LWOST
Low Water Ordinary Spring Tides - a measure of water depth at the low water mark on ordinary (i.e.: not exceptional) Spring tides. See Chart Datum and MLWS.
M
Meter or Measure
M/T (MT)
Motor Tanker
M/V (MV)
Motor Vessel
Management Company
A company (often third party) assuming responsibility for the operation and administration of a vessel, i.e. crewing, technical operations and maintenance.
Manifest
List of all cargo on board (Cargo Manifest). Term used also for passenger list on cruise vessels, passenger ferries, etc
MARAD
Maritime Administration (USA) - authority under the US department for Trade. Handles subsidies etc. to American shipyards and shipping companies.
Marine Riser
Large diametre casing, consisting of many pipe sections coupled together, normally with floating elements on the outside. Installed between the Marine BOP and the drilling rig.
MARINTEK
Norsk Marinteknisk Forskningsinstitutt A/S (Trondheim) - Norwegian maritime research institution.
Maritime inquiry
An inquiry conducted by maritime and legal authorities following an accident or near-accident at sea, resulting in a maritime declaration.The purpose of such hearings is to uncover the cause of accident or mishap. The inquiry is primarily conducted between members of the crew, but may also involve bystanders who may shed light on the events. The maritime inquiry serves three purposes according to Norwegian maritime law: -Enables maritime authorities to consider amending or improving existing rules and regulations in order to prevent similar accidents. -Determines whether or not someone should be prosecuted for criminal neglect or breach of rules. -Uncovers liabilities in connection with insurance claims.
MARPOL
The International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (London) - 1973 (as modified by the Protocol of 1978)
MAX
Maximum
MB
Molded Breath - the breath of the hull at the widest part, measured between the outer surfaces of the frames.
MBT
Motor Blocks Turning
MCT
Marine Custody Transfer
MCTM
Marine Custody Transfer Measurement - the measurement activity involving a marine custody transfer (MCT)
MD
Mean Draft - the average of the drafts measured at the bow and the stern ; Molded Depth - the depth measured between the top of the keel, or lower surface of the frame at the center line, and the top of the upper deck beam at the gunwale.
MDO
Marine Diesel Oil
MED
Mediterranean Sea
MEIF
Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility - Norwegian-Swedish-Greek proposal to solve the COFR-question.
MEP
Marine Environmental Protection (U.S.)
MEPC
Maritime Environment Protection Committee (IMO, London)
Merger
The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies.Merger - the joining of two or more (shipowning) companies.
MERCOSUR
Regional political trade organisation comprising Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.
MERPAC
Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee
MF
Meter Factor
MFO
Marine Fuel Oil
MHWN
Mean High Water Neaps
MIN
Minimum
MIN / MAX
Minimum/Maximum - refers to fixed cargo size - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes min./max.".
MIO
Marine Inspections Office
MITS
Maritim information technology.
MMC
Merchant Mariners’ Credentials
MMPD
Maximum Most Probable Discharge (U.S., related to oil spill)
MMS
Minerals Management Service (U.S.)
MODU
Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit
MOL
More Or Less - refers to a cargo size option - say, "10,000 tonnes, 5 percent more or less" - usually clarifying whose option to select the final cargo size
MOLCHOP
More Or Less Charterer's Option
MOLCO
More Or Less Charterer's Option
MOLOO
More or less owner's option - a margin which the shipowner has for the amount of cargo a vessel should carry. I.e. "30,000 tons 5 per cent moloo" means that the vessel can load between 28,500 and 31,500 tons.
Monkey Board
Platform in the drilling tower where the Derrick Man is handling the drill stem.
Monopod
Type of rig where the foundation consists of a cylindric stem from the seabed to the surface.
Motion Compensator
Equalizes level variations during drilling from floating rigs or cranes.
MOU
Memorandum Of Understanding
Mousehole
Hole in the Derrick platform where the next section of drill stem is placed a waiting being coupled to the drill stem.
MPA
Marine Preservation Association (supports MSRC)
MPMS
Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (API)
MPSV
Multipurpose Service Vessel
MR
Mates Receipt
MRR
Maritime Regulatory Reform
MS
Motor Ship
MSC
Maritime Safety Committee (IMO, London)
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
MSIS
Marine Safety Information System
MSO
Marine Safety Office (USCG)
MSRC
Marine Spill Response Corp., The. (OSRO)
MT (M/T)
Metric Tonne - a tonne of 2,204 pounds or 1,000 kilograms, equivalent to 0.9842 long tons.
MTC
Maritime Transport Committee (OECD)
Mud Line
The sea bed, the borderline between the water and solid sediments.
Mud Pit
Tank containing the drill mud.
Mud Weight
The weight of the drill mud in pounds per gallon. Light mud: 8 pounds/gln; heavy mud: 14 pounds/gln.
MUI
Maritime Union of Indian Officers
Multipurpose ship
General cargo ship which can also carry containers.
N/B
New Building
NAABSA
Not Always Afloat But Safe Aground - most owners will agree only that their vessel (especially deep-sea vessels) proceed only to ports where there is sufficient water to remain always afloat, so as to avoid the risk of hull damage. There are areas and ports, however, where water depth is restricted but, the bottom being soft mud, it is customary for ships to safely lie on the bottom at certain states of the tide - e.g.: River Plate. In such a case, owners will probably agree to proceed NAABSA.
NAFTA
North-American Free Trade Agreement
NARCO
National Response Corporation (OSRO)
NASCO
Norwegian Asian Seafarers' Conference
NATO
North-Atlantic Treaty Organization - Western defence alliance.
NAVSAC
Navigation Safety Advisory Council
NCB
National Cargo Bureau
NCP
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (U.S.)
NDFCAPMQS
No Deadfreight For Charterer's Account Provided Minimum Quantity Supplied.
Neap Tides
The opposite of Spring Tides (which see). Neap Tides occur when the tidal range is at its lowest - in other words during periods of relatively low high tides, and of relatively high low tides. A vessel that is prevented from berthing or from sailing with a full cargo or, indeed, is trapped in a berth by the onset of neap tides, is said to have been "neaped".
NEOBIG
Not East Of But Including Greece
NET CAP
Net Capacity
NET OBQ
OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks.
Net Tonnage NT
(0.2+0.02·log10(Vc))·Vc·(4d/3D)2, for passenger ships the following formula is added: 1.25·(GT+10000)/10000·(N1+(N2/10)), where Vc is the volume of the cargo holds, D is the distance between the ship's bottom and the uppermost deck, d is the draught, N1 is the number of cabin passengers, and N2 is the number of deck passengers.
NETAC
The National Environmental Technology Applications Center (Pittsburgh, PA)
Nett Terms
Opposite to Gross Terms. Cargo-handling is the responsibility and for the account of the charterer or the cargo seller.
NEWCI
Not East of West Coast of Italy
NFD
Norwegian Friendship Development - Norwegian recruiting office in Manila.
NH
North of (Cape) Hatteras
NIDDESC
Navy/Industry Digital Data Exchange Standards Committee
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NIS
Norsk Internasjonalt Skipsregister (Bergen) - Norwegian International Ship Register.
NIST
National Institute of Standards & Technology
NK / NKK
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai ( Japanese Ship Classification Society)
NMB
Norsk Maritimt Befalskartell - (see FENSO)
NMU
National Maritime Union (USA)
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - (A U.S. agency incorporating the National Weather Service)
NOE
Not Otherwise Enumerated
NOKUS-company (NOrsk-Kontrollert Utenlandsk Selska
Company established in a country where corporate taxes are less than two thirds of Norwegian corporate tax, and Norwegian interests own or control minimum 50 per cent of the shares. Norwegian participants in such companies are taxed in Norway for their share of profits (§7 in Norwegian Tax Law).
NOLA
New Orleans, Louisiana
NOP
Notice Of Protest - a letter issued by any participant in a voyage citing any condition with which issue is taken. This serves as a written record that the particular action or finding was questioned at the time of occurrence. For example a declaration made by the Master before a notary public or consular official when through stress of weather, there has been or the master fears that there might have been, damage to the vessel or cargo, or occurrences that exceeded or breached the warranties in the Charter Party. Copies are frequently demanded by insurance underwriters in the event of a claim.
NOPEF
Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Stavanger - Norwegian trade union for oil industry workers.
NOR
Skipsregisteret, Bergen. Often termed Norsk Ordin'rt Register - the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register.
NOR
Notice Of Readiness - notice served by the Master to inform the terminal/charterer that the vessel is ready in all respects to load or discharge cargo.
NORDKOMPASS
Nordisk Komité for Passasjerskip - Nordic forum for passengership and ferry companies and shipowners' associations.
NOS
Not Otherwise Specified
NOV
Net Observed Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S & W, and free water at observed temperature and pressure.
NPA
National Petroleum Association - usually with reference to ASTM D-155 color scale, for instance "undarker than 2.5 NPA", which can be described as "extra lemon pale"
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (U.S.)
NPFC
National Pollution Funds Center
NPRA
National Petroleum Refiners' Association
NPRM
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
NR
Norges Rederiforbund (Oslo) - Norwegian Shipowners' Association (NSA).
NRC
National Response Center (USCG)
NRDA
National Resource Damage Assessment (pronounced: NERDA)
NRDAM/GLE
Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments
NRDC
Natural Resources Defense Council
NRDC
The National Resources Defense Council (U.S.)
NRT
National Response Team (U.S.) ; Net Registered or Register Tonnage
NS
Norsk Styrmandsforening - the former Norwegian association for ships' mates.
NSA
see NR
NSF
Norsk Sjomannsforbund - Norwegian Seafarers' Union, (also Norsk Skibsforerforbund - Norwegian Association of Master Mariners)
NSF
National Strike Force (U.S.)
NSFCC
National Strike Force Coordination Center (U.S.)
NSOAF
North Sea Offshore Authority Forum.
NSRP
National Shipbuilding Research Program
NSU
National Seafarers' Union (Sri Lanka)
NSV
Net Standard Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S & W and free water, corrected by the appropriate temperature correction factor (Ct1) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60ºF or 15ºC and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cp1) and meter factor.
NT
Net Tonnage - the volumetric cargo capacity of a ship expressed on the basis of 100 cubic feet tot he ton. On passenger vessels it also includes space used by passengers.
NTC
Norwegian Training Center (Manila)
NTIS
National Technical Information Service (U.S.)
NTSB
National Transportation Safety Board
NUMAST
British trade union for officers and crew.
NUS
National Union of Seamen - British seamen's union.
NUSI
National Union of Seamen of India
NVIC
Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular
NVOC
Non Vessel Owning Company
NVOCC
Non Vessel Owning Common Carrier
NWS
National Weather Center
NYNNGWB
New York Not North of George Washington Bridge
NYPE C/P
New York Produce Exchange Time Charter Party Form
O/C
Ore Carrier ; Open Charter
OAL
Overall Length
OAPEC
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAU
Organisation of African Unity
OBO
Ore Bulk Oil - a vessel constructed in such a way that it may carry various bulk cargoes of ore, oil, grains and other bulk products.
OBO-carrier
Vessel built for the carriage of diversified bulkcargoes (i.e. Oil/Bulk/Ore).
OBQ
On Board Quantity - refers to cargo, bunkers or fresh water on board the ship prior to commencement of a charter, a voyage or loading operation. Also cargo tank quantities of any material aboard a ship after deballasting, immediately prior to loading. Can include oil, oil/water emulsion, water, non-liquid hydrocarbons and slops. (NET OBQ:OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks)
OCIMF
Oil Companies' International Marine Forum (London)
OECD
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - 25 member countries.
Offshore activities
For shipowning companies, O.A. include activities connected with the exploration for, development of and operation of oil and gas fields at sea. Most important are: Collecting seismic data, test drilling, field development, towing and anchor handling, the supply service, transportation of equipment and modules, heavylifts, diving operations and underwater work, the use of ROVs, pipelaying, operation of floatels and construction jobs. Salvage and rescue operations are also important aspects of this. The loading of oil tankers offshore by means of buoys or fixtures on the seabed, is still another feature of Norwegian offshore activities.
Offshore service vessels
Common term for specialized vessels used during the exploration, development and production phases of oil and gas at sea.
OFS
Oljearbeidernes Fellessammenslutning (Stavanger) - Norwegian federation of trade unions in the oil industry.
OFU
Offshoren'ringens Forhandlingsutvalg - negotiating committee for the offshore industry.
OGLA
Offshore Galveston Lightering Area
OIC
Officer In Charge
Oil spill compensation
Compensation for oil spills is internationally regulated by two conventions - The Civil Liability Convention - CLC - (i.e. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage - 1969) regulating the shipowners' liability, and The Fund Convention (i.e. International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971), with a fund financed by the cargo owners (oil companies) paying compensation if the shipowner cannot be held responsible, or if compensation paid is not adequate, with a maximum limitation clause.
Oil String
The last section of the drill pipe to be cemented in place. Also called Inner Conductor or Production Casing.
Oil-tanker
Ship carrying crude oil or refined products. If a ship is equipped to carry several types of cargo simultaneously, the ship type is called Parcel tanker. A shuttle tanker is a tanker carrying oil from offshore oil fields to terminals. An oil tanker especially built for the transportation of refined oilproducts, often with tanks painted or coated on the inside, is called a product carrier.
OLF
Oljeindustriens Landsforening (Stavanger) - Federation of oil industry employers.
OMB
Office of Management and Budget (U.S.)
OMS
Office of Marine Safety (U.S.)
On Stream
The phase where the oil/gas production is started through the main pipe.
OPA
Oil Pollution Act (USA)
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Vienna)
Ore/oil carrier
Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest.
OSSL
Oljeserviceselskapenes Landsforening - The Association of Norwegian Oil Industry Service Companies.
OSV
Offshore Support Vessel
P & I
Protection and Indemnity Insurance
Panmax (Panamax)
The largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (approximately 80 ,000 dwt.).
Parcel tanker
see Oil-tanker.
Pax
Abbreviation for passenger(s). Used in cruiseshipping and on passenger ferries.
Pay zone
The part of the reservoir which may be exploited economically.
PBOS
NATO Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (Brussels)
Penetration Rate
The drill bit's speed through the sediments.
Permeability
The sediment's ability to let hydrocarbons pass through.
Pipe-Laying Barge
or Lay Barge
Vessel constructed for the laying of pipes on the sea bed.
PMOU
Paris Memorandum of Understanding - European port-state control
POEA
Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (Manila)
Pooling
Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences.
PR
Polish classification society.
Primary Recovery
The initial extraction phase when the oil/gas is emitted naturally from the reservoir.
Production Ship
Specialized ship pumping oil through flexible pipelines from the seabed.
Production Unit
Platform equipped for the production of oil and gas.
Protectionism
Flag state protection of own shipping by the elimination of certain competitive elements (see also Flag discrimination).
PSU
Polish Seafarers' Union (formerly S-FUF or MR).
PSV
Platform Supply Vessel.
RAS
Radio Advisory Service (UK)
Rate
The offered/agreed price for the transportation of goods.
Ratio between Gross Tonnage/Net Tonnage/Deadweight
Approximate conversion figures: 1 NT = 1.7 GT 1 GT = 1.5 dwt. These figures are applicable for tankers and dry cargo vessels up to approximately 25,000 dwt., but not for reefers, ro-ro-ships, passenger ships, etc. For large tank- and bulkships (approximately 100,000 dwt. and above) 1GT is approximately 2 dwt.
Reefer Vessel
Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s).
Register ton
Old term for the measuring of ships, not to be used anymore. (One register ton is 100 cubic feet or 2.93 cubic metres).
RI
Registro Italiano - Italian classification society.
RLF
Rederienes Landsforening - Association of Norwegian short-sea shipowners.
Ro-ro-ship (Roll on - Roll off)
The cargo is driven on board and ashore, either by means of own engine (cars/trailers), or by means of special trucks. There are three main areas: -Ro-ro-ship operating in lines carries containers, pallets, flats or general cargo, and any type of cargo that can be driven on board. -Ro-ro-ship for the transportation of new automobiles (specialised: Pure Car Carrier - PCC), may also carry other rolling cargo. -Ro-ro-ferries carrying a combination of rolling cargo (cars/lorries/trailers) and passengers.
Roughneck
Worker in the oil and gas industry.
ROV
Remote Operated Vehicle
RS
he former Soviet classification society.
SADCC
South African cooperation forum
SAFTA
South American Free Trade Association
SAR
Search and Rescue
SBT
Segregated Ballast Tanks - tanks in a tanker solely used for ballast.
SBL
Seabed Logging Vessel
SDPO
Senior Dynamic Positioning Officer
SDR
Special drawing rights
SEATO
South-East Asian Treaty Organization - defence alliance.
Seismic ship
Vessel mapping gelogical structures in the seabed by firing air guns transmitting sound waves into the bottom of the sea. The ecco of the shot is captured by listening devices/hydrophones being towed behind the vessel. A seismic ship provides data which is an intrinsic part of the material determining if and when a test drilling should be initiated.
Semisubmersible
Movable installation consisting of a deck on stilts, fastened to two or more pontoons. When in operation, the pontoons are filled with water and lowered beneath the surface. The installation is normally kept in position by a number of anchors, but may also be fitted with dynamic positioning equipment (DPE). Usually fitted with own propulsion machinery (max. water depths 600 - 800 metres).
SFT
Statens Forurensningstilsyn - Norwegian Pollution Authority.
Shelterdeck
A deck above the vessel's main deck not included in the gross tonnage. Originally a lightweight structure to shelter the cargo on the main deck from adverse weather conditions. A closed shelterdecker is constructed to allow access through the hatches to the 'tweendeck, taking cargo on one or both levels.
Shipbroker
Person who - on behalf of shipowner/shipper - negotiates a deal for the transportation of cargo at an agreed price. Shipbrokers are also active when shipping companies negotiate the purchasing and selling of ships, both secondhand tonnage and newbuilding contracts.
Short Sea Shipping
Short distance international trade. Commonly used for trading between countries in the European Union.
Shuttle tanker
Buoy-loader - see Oil tanker.
SIGGTO
Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators
SIØS
Senter for Internasjonal Økonomi og Skipsfart ved Norges Handelshoyskole i Bergen - Norwegian center for maritime economics (Bergen).
SIRE
Ship Inspection Report Programme
SIU
Seafarers' International Union (USA)
Slop chest
Goods stocked by the Chief Steward or Purser, sold for private use or consumption by the crew.
SOLAS
Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (IMO, London)
Spotrate
Rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day.
SRF
Sveriges Redareforening, Gothenburg - Swedish Shipowners' Association.
Stand-by Vessel
Ship permanently stationed in the vicinity of an installation with the task of evacuating the rig-crew in an emergency. Also carrying out guard duty keeping other ships away from the installation.
STCW
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (IMO, London)
Stevedore
Dockworker handling loading/discharging. Term also used on companies delivering such services.
STUFT
Ships Taken Up From Trade - merchant vessels chartered by the military.
Submersible
Movable installation constructed for drilling operations in shallow waters, where it is lowered until it rests on the seabed (max. water depth 30 - 40 metres).
Subsidiarity principle
EU- rule that decisions should be taken on the lowest possible level, e.g. that any case should be decided nationally.
Suezmax
The largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120,000 -165,000 dwt.).
SUNAMAM
Brazilian shipping organization representing the authorities.
Supercargo
Person employed by shipowner or shipping company/charterer of a ship or a shipper of goods to supevise cargo handling operations. Sometimes called Superintendent. The Supercargo was formerly enlisted as a crew member; now stationed in ports.
Supply ship
Vessel transporting stores and equipment to drilling rigs or installations being built or in the production phase. Often called Straight Supply, or Platform Supply Vessel (PSV).
SUR
Seafarers' Union of Russia, Moscow
SWATH
Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull - fast and economical hull design, primarily used for highspeed ferries, etc.
Tallyman
Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests.
T/C-trip
The ship is hired for one voyage, but under T/C terms.
TA
Trans Atlantic
TA Round
Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TACKLE
Any combination of ropes and blocks the multiply power. The equipment on a vessel used to perform working tasks on the vessel.
TAFTA
Discussions between USA and the EU concerning a Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Tanker
Ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes.
TAPA
Trans-Alaska Pipeline Act
TAPS
Trans Alaska Pipeline System
TARV - Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TAT
EPA Technical Assist Team
Tension Leg Platform
Floating platform or loading buoy fastened to the seabed with vertical chains or stays etc. , kept in position by its own buoyancy.
TEU
Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. The container carrying capacity of a vessel, expressed in the number of TEUs it can load (standard containers of 20x8x8 feet).
Time-Charter (T/C)
The hiring of a vessel for a specified period of time.
TIR
Transport Internationale Routier - International customs' convention.
Tonkilometre
The transportation of one ton cargo over a distance of one kilometre.
Toolpusher
Foreman on a drilling rig.
TOVALOP
Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liabililty for Oil Pollution (London)
Tramp shipping
Ships trading where they can get cargo.
Trunk Line
The main oil pipeline.
TUAC
Trade Union Advisory Committee - advisory committee representing employees in the OECD.
UGT
Union General de Trabajadores - Spanish TUC.
UK/CONT B/H
United Kingdom/Continent Bordeaux/Hamburg range
ULCC
Ultra Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker of 300,000+ dwt.
Umbilical
Actually the "umbilical cord" - lifeline with air, hot water and other necessities connecting diver/diving bell with the mother ship or rig.
UNCITRAL
UN Commission on International Trade and Law
UNCLOS
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Geneva)
UNIDO
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
USAC
United States Atlantic Coast
USCG
U.S. Coast Guard
USG
United States Gulf (of Mexico)
USMC
US Maritime Commission
USNH
United States North of Hatteras
USWC
United States West Coast
VDR
Verband Deutscher Reeder - German Shipowners' Association.
VLCC
Very Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
Voyage-Charter
Contract of carriage where the charterer pays for the use of the vessel's cargo spaces for one or more voyages. Payment is calculated per ton goods carried. The owner pays all operating costs.
VTS
Vessel Traffic System
Water Drive
An important task to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Water Separation Plant
see Dehydration Plant.
Wax 
Paraffin wax which may cause production problems if condensed in production pipelines or in the valves.
WCSA
West Coast South America
Well-Head  
Heavy and strong construction installed on the surface string or conductor pipe as foundation for further pressure regulating equipment.
WFTU
World Federation of Trade Unions
Wildcatting
Speculative well drilling.
Workover
Programme for actions to increase/stimulate production from a well.
Worldscale
In the tanker segment of shipping, nearly all trip-chartering is done on the basis of the freight-rate system Worldscale (W), which is a method of calculation of payment for the transport of oil by ships, for a single or several consecutive voyages. Worldscale is a table giving the amount of dollars per ton oil for each of a number of standard routes. The rates listed in the table - the socalled flat rates - are termed Worldscale 100 (W100). Large tankers need a lower W than smaller vessels to make a profit. The flat rate is the rate per ton which gives a standard vessel (at present a 75,000 dwt. tanker) earnings of USD 12,000 per day on a T/C-basis for the stipulated voyage. If the flat rate is USD 10.- per metric ton, the rate level at W50 will be 50 per cent of the base rate at W100, i.e. USD 5.00 per ton. The flat rate W100 should make a profit for the "standard vessel", regardless of the voyage for which the ship is chartered. Worldscale is revised annually, and the calculations include both fixed and variable expenses. The purpose of the Worldscale is to enable both owner and charterer to compare easily the returns on alternative voyages.
WPC
World Petroleum Congress
WTO
World Trade Organization
WTSV
Well Testing and Service Vessel